Glass is a non-crystalline inorganic material made from quartz sand, soda ash, feldspar, limestone and other main raw materials through melting, molding, cooling and solidification. It has transparency that is difficult for ordinary materials to have, and has excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The deep processing of glass is the secondary product of glass. It is a glass product with specific functions, which is made by using the flat glass formed in one time as the basic raw material and adopting different processing techniques according to the use requirements.
The development of flat glass industry provides a good foundation and opportunity for further processing of glass. The types of sheet glass (also called original sheet glass) formed at one time mainly include float glass and other primary glass products. From the perspective of function, the original glass can only meet the basic needs of people for light transmission, while the deep-processed glass is closely related to the construction industry, transportation industry, electronic industry and military industry, representing the development direction of the entire glass industry. Although China's deep-processing glass industry started late, with the rapid improvement of the domestic economic level and people's living standards, people's requirements for the safety, energy-saving, comfort, beauty and environmental protection of glass have also become higher and higher. In addition to the promotion of policies and regulations, the deep-processing glass industry has developed rapidly, especially the safety glass and energy-saving glass, with an annual average growth rate of more than 30%. The deep-processing products of glass can control light, adjust temperature, prevent noise and improve architectural art decoration. Glass is no longer just a lighting material, but a structural and decorative material of modern architecture.
Compared with the international level, there is a big gap in industrial concentration, technological progress, market cooperation, product development and other aspects. The processing rate of flat glass in China is only 40%, and the degree of external dependence is 15-20%. The guarantee ability of high-end products needs to be improved, and the variety needs to be enriched; The market development is disorderly and the product quality is uneven, so the integration and upgrading of China's glass deep processing industry needs to be strengthened urgently.
In terms of application, there are nearly a thousand subdivided varieties of deep-processed glass in the world today, which are mainly used in home furnishing, modern communication, ecological environment, energy production, national defense scientific research, military, industrial, architectural design and other fields. The rate of glass deep processing in the world's major industrialized countries is rising from 60% in the 1980s and 70% in the 1990s to more than 80% now. The ratio of glass deep processing in China is only about 40%, which is far behind the world average of 60% and the ratio of glass deep processing in developed countries of more than 80%. The development space of domestic industry is very broad.
The development of domestic deep-processed glass industry mainly presents the following characteristics:
(1) Regionality of geographical layout
The capacity of deep-processed glass is mainly distributed in South China, East China and North China, which is basically consistent with the industrial layout of flat glass. The fragility of glass and the limitation of transportation lead to the intensive marketing within 300km, the selective distribution within 300-800km and the exclusive marketing beyond 800km. In other words, the sales radius of the glass deep processing industry is about 500 kilometers, so the industry has a strong regional character. When the factory is built, it mainly depends on the demand place. In recent years, the large-scale development and construction in the central and eastern regions of China have formed a considerable scale of glass enterprises in these areas.
(2) Diversity of product structure
Compared with the ordinary flat glass industry, which only produces the original glass sheet, the product structure of the glass deep processing industry is obviously diverse. There are thousands of glass varieties that can meet the different needs of industry, architecture, military and communication. The diversity of product structure can eliminate the single consumption mode of the original ordinary flat glass market and weaken the impact of cyclical fluctuations in the economy. Since 2000, the sales volume of China's glass deep processing industry has increased year by year and has been in a profitable development state.
(3) Innovation of glass deep processing technology and products
Innovation is the soul of an enterprise, and also the source of life for the sustainable development of an industry. Compared with ordinary flat glass, deep-processed glass is easier to be replaced by substitutes. For example, glass film can replace hollow Low-E glass to a certain extent. Therefore, only when glass deep processing technology and products continue to develop in the direction of high quality, green, multi-function, high added value and high-tech content, can the industry become bigger and stronger. The innovation of glass deep processing includes product innovation, process technology optimization and environmental protection and energy conservation.
The invention of glass can be traced back to 3500 years ago. As a basic raw material, it has been widely used for 130 years. In today's society, whether it is a static building or a running car, from small glasses and lenses, home decoration, to large building curtain walls, are inseparable from glass products. So far, no material can replace glass, and glass is gradually replacing some material. In the future, people's market demand for functional glass will grow rapidly, and other uses of glass are being continuously developed. The original glass sheet will be transformed from final consumer products to intermediate products. Deep processing of glass will not only use a single technology and method for production, but also pay attention to the combination of multiple technologies and research on glass modified materials, so as to make glass products into composite functional type Ecological and intelligent energy conservation and environmental protection.
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